NEW METHODS FOR CLEAN FUEL PRODUCTION AT A COST, CLOSE TO ZERO
INNOVATIVE FUELS AND ENERGIES

Great News !

CO2 to ETHANOL

Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed an electrochemical process that uses tiny spikes of carbon and copper to turn carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, into ethanol. “We discovered somewhat by accident that this material worked,” said ORNL’s Adam Rondinone, lead author of the team’s study. “We were trying to study the first step of a proposed reaction when we realized that the catalyst was doing the entire reaction on its own.”

The team used a catalyst made of carbon, copper and nitrogen and applied voltage to trigger a complicated chemical reaction that essentially reverses the combustion process. With the help of the nanotechnology-based catalyst -- which contains multiple reaction sites -- the solution of carbon dioxide dissolved in water turned into ethanol with a yield of 63 percent. Typically, this type of electrochemical reaction results in a mix of several different products in small amounts. “We’re taking carbon dioxide, a waste product of combustion, and we’re pushing that combustion reaction backwards with very high selectivity to a useful fuel,” Rondinone said. “Ethanol was a surprise -- it’s extremely difficult to go straight from carbon dioxide to ethanol with a single catalyst.” The catalyst’s novelty lies in its nanoscale structure, consisting of copper nanoparticles embedded in carbon spikes. This nano-texturing approach avoids the use of expensive or rare metals such as platinum that limit the economic viability of many catalysts.

Report's full text, published on September 23th, 2016, here :
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/slct.201601169/full

This invention could be one of the most important ones, made in the entire human's history.

It could allow :
1. Halt of all fossil fuels digging out of the earth and adding new portions of CO2 into the atmosphere.
2. Production of a relatively safe, clean and cheap mass-fuel, at a cost, close to zero.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Ethanol's production process could be supplied with low-cost power, produced out of water, by an Autonomous Oxy-Hydrogen (HHO) Power Plant (www.powerplant.alle.bg), at a cost, close to zero. Thus the Ethanol fuel's final retail price will be times lower than any one other.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Modified Oxy-Hydrogen (MOH) Gas Fuel - the ideal fuel of the future

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Here is a short presentation of several scientific discoveries and inventions, made by the research team of Grainis ltd. Hydrogen Bulgaria, during it's R&D work since 2005, on low-cost generation of Hydrogen and Oxygen-Hydrogen (OH) gas fuels, by a special method of low-power (0.8Wh power consumed per liter OH gas produced), Modified Water Electrolysis.
The 0.8Wh/L power-consumption result, is the best in the world and is 5 times lower than the regular power rate of all the serially-produced oxy-hydrogen gas generators across the world today.

Oxy-Hydrogen (OH) Gas has the lowest own flame temperature - only 140 deg.C, but it can heat, melt and boil-up various refractory materials called UHTC, as ZrO2, Ta4HfC5, etc., up to ultrahigh temperatures (>5,000 deg.C). The reason for this extreme behavior is that OH gas is electrically conductive, or it is ionized gas (Cold PLASMA).

Combining both properties - the low-power water electrolysis and the ultrahigh heating, performed by the OH's gas-plasma flame, the Grainis' team invented and designed a unique Autonomous OH Power Plant and a Gas-Fuel Plant, consuming ONLY WATER.
The only waste is clean water too.
Zero harmful emissions evolved. 100% clean and renewable power and fuel generation.
Also, Power and fuels production, based on this method, are extremely cost-effective.
The Autonomous OH Power Plant can also produce Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen at a cost, close to zero.

The ultrahigh-temperature property of the OH gas is widely used today in various high-temp clean-welding and heating applications. It is also perfect for full-blast high-temp combustion and total destruction and de-activation of all kinds of wastes, incl. hazardous ones. Combustion process can be combined with parallel power and clean-fuel generation.

Grainis ltd. was also engaged with researches of a special kind of Modified Oxygen-Hydrogen (MOH) stoichiometric gas mixture, produced by an additional, ultrasonic activation of the electrolytic solution, in the process of water electrolysis. The result was a new gas generation, with new amazing properties.
Unlike the regular Oxy-Hydrogen (OH), the new Modified OH gas (MOH) can be safely compressed, liquefied, filled and stored for years in standard CNG and LNG bottles and tanks. Also, MOH can be injected directly and combust as a single fuel in all kinds of internal combustion engines, gas turbines, jet and rocket engines.

MOH gas is low-flammable, cannot be ignited by a spark, and no drawbacks as leakage, permeation, diffusion and embrittlement are being observed at all, as it happens usually with the pure hydrogen.

MOH is a highly dense fuel - 1m3 of liquid MOH contains 2.5 times more kg of hydrogen than 1m3 liquid hydrogen.
 
All these properties make this gas an ideal fuel.

A similar gas was patented as "Ohmasa Gas" in 2011 by the outstanding Japanese scientists Dr. Ryushin Omasa.

Patent : http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20110139630#ixzz3LOxSiPwy
Video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUPE0Z9V82E

The main difference between the Grainis/MOH gas and the Ohmasa Gas is, that unlike the Grainis power-autonomous method, Omasa's gas production is GRID-powered, which makes it's cost extremely high.

Instead of being an ideal fuel and a perfect energy storage, MOH gas is also a safe Storage for Pure Hydrogen, used as a fuel for Hydrogen Fuel Cells power generation. Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen can be easily extracted out of compressed or liquefied (LMOH) gas, on-board, on-demand, and separated by a simple molecular sieve, then applied for Electric Power Generation, using Hydrogen Fuel Cell.

This way the expensive, heavy and dangerous 700-bar compressed-hydrogen tanks, used in the FCEV cars as Toyota Mirai, Honda FCV Clarity, Hyundai Tucson, etc., could be replaced with safe 1-bar-compressed Liquid-MOH tanks.

Instead of being safe, MOH is many times cheaper than the hydrogen - $0.10/kg vs $10/kg.

Instead on-board application, MOH-Hydrogen Fuel Cell power generation could be used for compact and noiseless on-land-stationary power&heat generation options too.

Pure Hydrogen, produced by an autonomous OH Power Plant, can be also used as a valuable feedstock for traditional Hydrocarbon Fuels' production as Diesel, Gasoline, Ethanol, Methanol, Methane, LPG, DME, etc., and chemical raw materials as Ethylene, Propylene, Fertilizers, etc. products, using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Cycle, at an extremely low cost.

Methanol, Formaldehyde

Diesel, Gasoline, Dimethyl-Ether

What is Dimethyl-Ether (DME) ?  Is it really the better Diesel ?
https://www.aboutdme.org/index.asp?bid=234

Уебсайт в alle.bg